- Chronology of deep space exploration
- Soviet Veneras and Mars: first entry probes trajectory reconstruction and science
- Soviet and Russian Space History - Pictures
- Russian Planetary Exploration
Numbers marked green come from the Library of Congress reports on the Soviet space program. Antennas used on various spacecraft models. Picture 1: Venera-1, 1VA, launched on 12 February was the first successful vehicle that used the new decimeter. The news agency TASS announced the transmission frequency as The rather detailed pictures of the craft that were released show no sins of antennas for any other frequency band, i.
All antennas were mounted on the shadow side of the spacecraft - the side of the craft was normally turned in the general direction of Earth. The fact that no cm-band transmitters were carried on the 1VA probe can probably be explained by the fact that no image transmissions requiring high bandwidth were planned for these early probes.
The antenna configuration show antennas for the metre and decimneter links. Presumably the cm link were served by the parabolic dish. Picture 3: My sketch of Mars-1 antennas.
Chronology of deep space exploration
Picture 4: Decimeter band hemispherical spiral. Picture 5 : The antenna configuration contains antennas for the metre and decimeter links. Picture 6: 1 - parabolic antenna, 2 - low-gain antenna, 3 - boom for holding a magnetometer and an antenna for monitoring the descent vehicle. Picture 7: Detail of Picture 6 showing low-gain antenna. This particular antenna is mounted on a boom and intended for monitoring the signal from the descent probe.
Soviet Veneras and Mars: first entry probes trajectory reconstruction and science
There are two more antennas like this on the spacecraft; mounted on the hemispherical thermal radiators. The mounting interface to the main spacecrfat is the same as for the descent capsules. Picture On the sun side of the spacecraft two hemispherical spiral antennas can be seen - one on the main body of the spacecraft and one on the left thermal radiator. Picture On the shadow side a Lindenblad antenna can be seen on the left thermal radiator and two circular disks on the right radiator.
Picture The photograph above supposedly shows Venera-2, but it looks more like Zond The two hemispherical spiral anrennas are not grouped together as in Picture. One is on the main body and one on the tip of a solar panel. The solar cell layout looks different. The mounting interface to the main spacecraft is the same as for the descent capsules. Picture With Venera-4 the hemispherical thermal radiotors are gone and replaced by the parabolic dish as a radiator.
- Soviet Veneras and Mars : first entry probes trajectory reconstruction and science,?
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This works because the dish for Venus the dish always points away from the Sun. Don Mitchell wrote 8 : "T hat was one of several things Lavochkin did when they redesigned the craft. Lavochkin also favored the conical helical antennas. The left helix has a sharp point and the right helix is truncated. This side is normally turmed toward Earth because the spacecraft is intended to travel to Venus which is closer to the Sun than Earth. In the picture on the left we can see the antennas on the main spacecraft: 1 - helix for the VHF link with the lander.
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In the picture of the lander on the right we can see the unusual VHF helix on top. The picture below shows the overall antenna arrangement for the second generation Mars probes. The antennas for communicating with the lander is slightly different than for the Venera probe. Here the helix is conical. This probably has to do with a different link geometry between the main spacecraft and the lander. In the photo below, where the re-entry braking cone is reoved it is easy to see the atennas for the landing radar.
Soviet and Russian Space History - Pictures
The not-so-good picture of the actual lander shows whip antennas for the VHF link to the orbiter. D on Mitchell's site on the exploration of Venus and other topics. Back to Space Radio Notes. Official descriptions of the radio systems. Modulation systems. Metre band MHz. X-band GHz.
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Picture 8: Picture of Venus probe boom-mounted antenna taken by myself at the Energia Musuem in Moscow. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube.
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Russian Planetary Exploration
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